Comportamento e Modelação do Aço

Miguel da Silva Abambres

Resumen


El presente trabajo de revisión pone a disposición de toda la comunidad técnica y científica vinculada al estudio del comportamiento de estructuras de acero las leyes constitutivas utilizadas con frecuencia, y de manera eficaz, en la modelación del comportamiento elástico-plástico de aceros al carbono e inoxidables en simulaciones numéricas por elementos finitos. Ya que el acero inoxidable es un material relativamente nuevo en aplicaciones estructurales, y con un comportamiento material altamente no lineal y muy distinto al acero dulce (el acero inoxidable no tiene un límite de fluencia bien definido), el artículo se enfoca principalmente en los aceros inoxidables, incluyendo una descripción detallada (i) de los principales tipos de aplicaciones, y ventajas en la construcción, y (ii) de las principales expresiones analíticas propuestas en la literatura para modelar el comportamiento uniaxial de toda aleación (austeníticos, ferríticos o duplex). En particular, se recomienda el uso de la ley típica bilineal para modelar el acero al carbono (con o sin endurecimiento) y la relación no lineal (ε-σ) propuesta por Quach et al. (2008) para simular el acero inoxidable, la cual es (i) válida para el comportamiento a la tracción/compresión hasta la última extensión, y (ii) depende solo de dos parámetros básicos de Ramberg-Osgood (E, σ0.2, n). Asimismo, se sugiere que ese acero se modele con un comportamiento lineal en el régimen elástico, teniendo en cuenta el límite de tensión proporcional a 0.01% (σ0.01) como tensión de fluencia inicial.

Palabras clave


Acero al carbono; acero inoxidable; comportamiento material; material elástico-plástico; leyes constitutivas uniaxiales; simulación numérica por elementos finitos

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